DEODAND: A THING THAT MUST BE OFFERED . . . .

Left-overs from my historical-biography novel research.

The year, 1637: Poor John Briant, lies there crumpled in the dirt, bleeding with cuts and scratches. His body has become a broken bulk. Poor, poor John is now quite dead.

Who killed John?

Who shall pay? 

The place, Mattanient, Maryland: A jury of twelve men upon their oath swore a falling tree had killed John.  Therefore the tree must pay.

Deodand is a thing that has caused a death and must be offered to God.

The sacrificing of inanimate killers of humans, probably steeped in superstition, dates back to at least the 1200s.  English Common Law continued on in pre-colonial Maryland, including this ancient statute of deodand. Inanimate killers of humans, or their worth, must be handed over to the authorities.

 Sir William Blackstone, an English Jurist in the eighteenth century who was noted for his commentaries on English Law, questioned how much of the object must be sacrificed.

For example: If a person is crushed by a wagon wheel, is only the wheel given up or does the law of deodand require the whole wagon?  If it is the whole wagon, what about the horse? What about the objects within the wagon?

The courts finally abolished the ancient English statute of deodand  in 1846.  I had never heard of this most unusual practice, but I love obscure or ancient words. What do you think about this little piece of trivia?  Have you heard of deodand before this? Please, leave me a comment below.

 

 

 

 

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Children, Spinsters, and Patriots

Babies died. Children died. Young men and women died. Life in 1630s early-colonial America called for hard work, endurance, and brought much heartache. Here in our high-tech automated world of designer medicines, we think of our ancestral grandfathers and sons from sunup to sundown hunting or toiling in fields while their wives and daughters churned butter, sewed clothes, and plucked chickens.

Did you ever imagine the whole family involved in making thread?

Do you know how this one activity helped the colonies win the Revolutionary War?

Long before the Revolutionary War, in 1640, the Court of Massachusetts order the growing of flax and also every boy and girl from age 6 or 7 years and older learn how to spin it into fine thread to be woven into homespun material for clothing.

The Court commissioned each family to spin a set amount of flax by the pound per year or be fined. Every member of the family had a role to play. The flax had to be grown, harvested, prepared (which is complicated process) combed, and carded before it is spun. Other colonies soon required the same of its people as Massachusetts. Homespun cloth held high value.

The art of spinning dates back to ancient times. Viewed to be an honorable work, young unmarried women who spun were called spinsters. After a time it became a legal title for any unmarried woman. Years later the spinning of wool helped the colonies win the Revolutionary War.

Antique Spinning Wheel by unknown

Independence from the hand of the English King during colonial times required self sufficiency. Instead of shipments from England, the colonists needed to rely on their own handmade items: shelter, food, drink, clothing, tools, and medicines. In preparation for the Revolutionary War in 1775, colonial homes with spinning wheels spun wool and made coats for the thousands of colonial soldiers preparing for winter battle.

Descriptions of how ancient Egyptians grew, prepared, and spun flax can be found in the Book of Proverbs, and it is precisely the method our colonial ancestors used to create homespun materials. This type of national self-resilience required every able member of the colonial family to do their part. Their homemade initiatives equaled their independence.

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Ale and Leather. . . Let ‘s Drink to it.

If you sailed from England to the New World in the 1630s, before the age of coffee or tea, your beverage of choice would be cider or ale.  No one trusted the purity of onboard water. On the ship your drink would not be served in a fancy cut-glass tankard or an ornate-leaded vessel. It probably wouldn’t be made of clay, bronze, or a ram’s horn.

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However you most likely would enjoy your drink from a handsomely made leather tankard. The quality of leather would match what we use for saddles, and it would be finely stitched. Inside, waterproofing would have been applied using pitch.

In the above photo (inside a reconstructed 1630s ship) wooden bowls and food plates sit next to more leather tankards. Most Europeans during these times ate with their fingers, spoons, and knives. Forks appeared in the 4th century but were largely unknown until hundreds of years later in Europe around the 18th century. Colonial America did not use forks until after the American Revolution. Starting with the 5th century and moving forward in time, people drank from clay goblets, Saxon decorated ram’s horns,  bronze,  brass, and pewter vessels. We all know about the lead goblets with the craziness that ensued in Rome. Perhaps Rome would not have burned if they had drank  not from lead, but from leather.

Now you’ll want your very own leather tankard. I found a link where you can buy one for £600: https://www.historicroyalpalaces.com/homewares-garden/kitchen/goblets-tankards-pewter/hampton-court-palace-leather-tudor-pint-tankard.html

 

 

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HOW TO USE 3,000 STRAIGHT PINS

Queen Elizabeth (b. 1533 – d. 1603) used about 3,000 straight pins a month, probably more than most, but still an impressive amount. Pins have been used for about 4,000 years, appearing around the emergence of the bronze age. You probably didn’t know this because men were our story tellers of early history, and they found battles more exciting than pins.

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Yet, the lowly pin made all the difference.  The pin kept things in place and provided a showy way for the noble class, the gentry, the gentlemen to be 672px-Kaspar_Schoppe_-_Portrait_von_Rubensdistinguished from their servants.  Men and women dressed in pieces of clothing–many different interchangeable parts.  They could change sleeves, stomachers, collars, bodices, and other items for a different appearance for  different occasions.

Pins held these pieces of clothing together. Men’s clothing might use rows of buttons, but also pins you can’t see. Even children’s fine clothes required pinning.  The earliest known pins were formed from bone, with needles coming into being about the same time. However, Queen Elizabeth I would have used pins made of bronze, brass, or iron. Iron remained sharp longer, but like bronze would tarnish.  Pins came in long, medium, and delicate sizes. Delicate ones were used to attach lace and silk, like this gentleman’s cuffs and collar.

If you look closely at the photo of the woman you can see where pins undoubtedly were used. She has pearls in her hair, a collar that stands up more stiffly than from just being starched, her over dress contains many parts and decorations. We can see two roses at the neck line, a cape with a halo-like collar with pearls pinned to its edges around her Elizabethan collar that goes up and behind her hair, a bodice with several parts ending in a low pointed stomacher, drapes of pearls attached to her sleeves and around her cuffs and wrists, and the elegant fabric of her skirt pinned up in flounces around her hips. We can’t even begin to see her underpinnings.

This photo of a noble lady can be dated around the reign of Queen Elizabeth because of her Elizabethan collar and her manner of dress. She has most likely employed hundreds of pins to dress in this attire.  The importance these pins held for the noble can’t be denied, but even the kitchen maid and the peasant women required a few pins. They had to hold their caps in place–as well as their pinafores.

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Upon discovering the importance of pins from the earliest of times until the late 1800s, I wondered how would an active person keep from yelping with pain. Then I delved deeper into the clothing of the 16th and 17th century and understood. These men and women, or their servants, knew how to pin correctly. Also everyone dressed in many layers of clothing, protecting them from the prickly points of pins. Besides, those who wore the most pins would have had the most staff to do their tasks. Sudden or laborious movements would rarely be necessary.

It’s been years since I’ve purchased a packet of pins.  A month ago I bought my husband a shirt and once at home I removed four short pins that had kept the shirt looking neatly folded.  Can you remember the last time you bought or I encountered a new pin?

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What Walking Tells About You.

The walking gait of your ancestors frequently indicated their vocation or place in society. A townsman might demonstrate a quickness of step and there’s the gentleman’s swagger. Yet the sheepherder needs a lithe or nimble stride compared to the flatfooted march of the plowman.

The plowman, working acres of rows upon closely lined rows of soil, developed a walk that amused city dwellers. Yet those who imitated the plowman’s tireless stride could walk for miles and miles and hours and hours across the countryside.

With the body leaning slightly forward at the hips, the plowman would “fall” into his forward moving step, landing his feet flat on the soil.

Keeping a stead pace, he could easily cover a mile in fifteen minutes, or four miles in an hour, or forty miles in ten hours. In the centuries prior to convenient transportation, people with no horses often walked twenty to forty miles a day. The plowman’s walk, though laughable by the gentry and others, provided reliable movement between farms, villages, and cities.

You still have ingrained habits arising from your social ancestral heritage. For example, children by at least the 15th and 16th centuries knew to avoid their parents’ scorn by not picking their noses, squinting, or putting their fingers in their mouths. At mealtime they learned quickly to only rest their forearms not their elbows on the table. Maybe your walking gait says something about your ancestors. How far and how long can you walk in one day?

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IS THIS TRIP WORTH TAKING?

Would you sail on this ship across the ocean? This replica of the Dove sailed the Atlantic Ocean in 1634, accompanying a larger ship, the Ark. Used as a supply ship and a scouting vessel in more shallow waters, the Dove carried no passengers.

The Dove, replica, docked at Historic St. Mary’s City (personal photo)

The little Dove followed along with its larger ship the Arc, which carried about 140 passengers. These were the first adventurers to settle in Maryland. A fascinating story for another time tells about the Dove being lost in a storm off the coast of England, during this passage. Astounding as it seems, the Dove rejoined with the Ark a few months later in Barbados.

Maryland became the forth successful colony after Jamestown, Plymouth, and Boston. Lord Baltimore I, George Calvert, prior to his death procured Maryland from Virginia by a grant from King James I. Calvert envisioned Maryland as a unique experiment for religious tolerance and economic opportunity.

My newest novel, a work in progress, starts in England with the story of Lady Margaret Brent, who sails for Maryland with a sister and two brothers in the year 1638. Her actions changed not only lives but history, and her strength became a model for future women.

The American Bar Association gives an award in Margaret Brent’s name to deserving women attorneys each year.

Here’s a photo of a little bit of my research resources. Researching has taken me to some strange places, and I’ve discover unbelievable things. Most won’t make it into my book, but I’ll write about a few here in the coming weeks.

Would you have been adventuresome enough to leave your family and all that was familiar to you to sail across the sea to a strange and wild land?

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